- The marriage of Zikmund of Tiefenbach and Kateřina Meziříčská of Lomnice in the context of marriage alliances of evangelical nobility in pre-White-Mountain Moravia
The first part of the study offers an overview of marriages arranged between evangelical noblemen and noblewomen owning estates in Southern and South-Western Moravia during the last quarter of the 16th and first two decades of the 17th centuries. These were mostly members of five lordly families three of whom participated in forming evangelical church code passed in October 1576 during a diet of Moravian evangelical nobility and clergy from their manors held in Velké Meziříčí. The overview reveals that exactly the marriages served to consolidate inner solidarity of this fraction in which the noble families of Meziříčský of Lomnice, Brtnický of Valdštejn were together with the families of Hardegg, Thurn and Tiefenbach. The second part of the text analyses the wedding performed between Zikmund of Tiefenbach and Kateřina Meziříčská of Lomnice in September 1607. Since this marriage was arranged in spite of the ban of the sovereign, who preferred a catholic suitor in struggle for the bride and her inheritance after the family of Meziříčský of Lomnice, there followed a thorough investigation of circumstances under which the preceding engagement had been taken and also the marriage ceremony of both protestant spouses itself at the turn of years 1607 and 1608. Together with the procedural aspects of the litigation, which was terminated by the peace treaty of Libeň between Rudolf II and Mathias of Habsburg in June 1608 and the death of Kateřina Tiefenbach of Lomnice during the following year, the attention is further drawn to the argumentation which both sides used during hearings at the Royal Council.
Key words: Early Modern Age; nobility; Bohemian lands; marriage alliances; confessionalization
- The Regulation of Land Court concerning settling of Bohemian crown subsidiary lands' inhabitants in Bohemia from year 1617. A contribution to the normative competence of the Kingdom of Bohemia's High Land Court and to the informative potential of Land tables
In year 1603 in Bohemia there settled Jan Bernard Baron of Fünfkirchen, an Austrian nobleman, who bought manors Mladá Vožice and Šelmberk from Jáchym Španovský of Lisov. Because of the Bohemian Land Law prohibiting the selling of Land table estates to foreigners, Jan Bernard had to formally gain Bohemian residential right (incolatus). The foreigners were chartered this right of entry by the Land Diet, but Jan Bernard was not in legal terms a true foreigner because he had formerly gained some property in Silesia as a subsidiary land of the Bohemian Crown. That is why he did not have to pass the entrance procedure, but it was sufficient for him to seal so called „reverse to the Land“ and perform its declaration at the Land table office. In year 1617 Jan Bernard asked the Land table office for the extract of table entry (intabulation) of his declaration to the land. In consequence of this there was found out that a table registrar Daniel Kryštof Chrudimský accepted his subscription fee indeed, but in fact he did not execute that. So the Baron of Fünfkirchen had to declare to the Land again and the High Land Court formulated on this occasion a new general resolution concerning the settling of new inhabitants of subsidiary lands of the Bohemian Crown in Bohemia which should have prevented similar mistakes in the following times. This resolution was addressed to Land table officers though and therefore it was not juridical in this respect but only served as an internal regulation. Nevertheless, it represented a significant intervention in legal practice which was concerning the legal institute of residential right and became an object of relatively intensive normative interests of Land Diets at the beginning of the 17th century.
Key words: Residential right; declaration to the land; subsidiary lands of the Bohemian Crown; Land Law; Land Court
- Reading Enlightenment in Melk
The article discusses the changes in reading practices of monks in the Melk monastery under the impact of the Enlightenment. Melk was a famous Benedictine monastery. The author bases his conclusions on the research in the libraries and on sources related to book culture. It demonstrates that daily life and intellectual culture of the monks did not correspond with the traditional cliché of „enemies of the Enlightenment“.
Key words: Book culture; intellectual culture; reading; Melk monastery; Benedictine monastery
- „A Story of Benign Neglect“
The History of Foundation of America and the Habsburg Monarchy 1776-1783
This article sets out an overview of my doctoral project entitled „A Story of Benign Neglect“ – The American Founding and the Habsburg Monarchy, 1776-1789 which investigates and brings to attention the diplomatic, economic and intellectual relationships between the Habsburg Monarchy and the newly declared United States. Below a section of this doctoral work examines the first interaction of the Americans with the Habsburg Monarchy with the mission of William Lee to Vienna in the spring of 1778. Through this example, along with the numerous encounters in the rest of the period, I hope to reveal new insights into the wider founding of the United States and present a more globally entangled vision of the Habsburg Monarchy in the eighteenth century. My doctoral project aims to recover this rich but sadly neglected story of international relations in the „Age of Revolutions“.
Key words: American revolution; history of diplomacy, the United States of America, Habsburg Monarchy;William Lee
- Tutors, Godparents and Trustees of Orphans in rural Society of the first half of 19th Century
The article strives to compare the institution of godparenthood and tutelage on the example of 1056 orphaned children in years 1785-1855 in Nový Rychnov region based on a premise that both functions were aimed at guaranteeing upbringing of the orphans and its representatives ought to substitute in a way the deceased parents. The research proved that the godparents only rarely took over the legal liability for their godchildren, however both groups of the representatives of orphaned children were characterised by similar features. There prevailed persons living in the closest surroundings of the orphans, in both cases these were often close relatives, mostly the siblings of their parents. The cousinship of the tutors had been preferred already in the Early Modern Age; the familiarization of godparenthood has been perceived as one of the characteristic features of the change of relationships in the 19th century. During christenings the godfather and godmother acted as equal partners who in overwhelming majority of cases formed a married couple. However, only the mothers, or respectively sisters of the orphans could become their women tutors. In case of unrelated tutors there were usually appointed representatives of local government or reputable neighbours. Among spiritual relatives there slightly prevailed persons of social status similar to the parents of a particular child. Only several families chose habitual godfathers from locally well-known people. The parents’ selection of godparents usually served to deepen existing friendships; the elective godparenthood through which each child had a different godparent was rare. The siblings of one family used to have also the same tutor.
Key words: Godparenthood; tutelage; orphaned children; country; 19th Century
- Diplomatic relations between the Spanish monarchy and the northern parts of the Holy Roman Empire during the reign of Charles II.
The presented study introduces theses of doctoral project focused on extending the knowledge of international relations between the Monarchy of Spain and northern parts of the Holy Roman Empire – Brandenburg-Preußen, Braunschweig-Lünenburg, the Hansa towns – during the reign of Charles II. The author will research the formations of social networks at Madrid Royal Court on the basis of diplomatic activities of particular imperial emissaries to Madrid. There will not be neglected also questioning the existence of so called „German“ faction at the court and outlining the cooperation among the mentioned emissaries and ambassadors of Leopold I of Habsburg. Contemporaneously, the author will concern about the way in which the noblemen from the Holy Roman Empire reflected their long-term stay on the Iberian Peninsula. There will further be researched social and ceremonial performances which the mentioned persons participated in regularly. In its heuristic stage the author will use rich source bases, especially documents preserved in Geheimes Staatsarchiv Preußischer Kulturbesitz Berlin, Niedersächsisches Landesarchiv Hannover, Archiv der Hansestadt Lübeck, Archivo General de Simancas, Haus- Hof- und Staatsarchiv Wien.
Key words: Diplomatic relations; 17th century; Spanish monarchy; Northern parts of the Holy Roman Empire; Diplomats
HISTORIOGRAPHY AND METHODOLOGY
- Historian of intellectual history John G. A. Pocock
Franz Leander Fillafer
The article presents the life and methods of John G. Pocock, the famous representative of the Cambridge school of history of ideas. The introductory text sketches the development of his thoughts and explains in which ways he responded to the challenges of the present political world. Finally, Pocock´s method is demonstrated by a commented excerpt from his recent article on the conservative Enlightenment.
Key words: John G. Pocock; historiography; Enlightenment; history of ideas; methodology